Fomina O.I.

Title of the article The Peculiarities of the U.S. Higher Education Development Strategy in the Context of Current Conditions
Authors Fomina Olga I.
Year 2014 Issue №10 Pages 118
Type of article   Index UDK   Index BBK  

The aim of the re­se­arch is to in­ves­ti­ga­te a cur­rent sta­te of the US hig­her edu­ca­ti­on and to show obstac­les in a way of its in­no­va­ti­ve per­fec­ti­on; to re­ve­al spe­ci­fi­city of the US sta­te po­licy con­cer­ning the hig­her scho­ol; to de­fi­ne fac­tors that influ­en­ce the ef­fec­ti­ve­ness of the Ame­ri­can re­se­arch uni­ver­si­ti­es du­ring the last de­ca­des.

Met­hods. The aut­hor appli­es for met­hods of the ret­ros­pec­ti­ve and lo­gic analysis whi­le con­si­de­ring so­ci­al and eco­no­mic con­di­ti­ons and fe­atu­res of functi­oning of the Ame­ri­can hig­her edu­ca­ti­onal insti­tu­ti­ons du­ring the lat­ter half of 20th – the early 21st cen­tu­ri­es. Conclu­si­ons on a con­di­ti­on and pros­pects of de­ve­lop­ment of the US hig­her edu­ca­ti­on are ma­de on the ba­sis of the re­vi­ew and the aut­hor’s in­terpre­ta­ti­on of ori­gi­nal do­cu­men­tary so­ur­ces te­nor and the of­fi­ci­al sta­tis­ti­cal da­ta.

Re­sults. The aut­hor spe­ci­fi­es the gro­ups of fac­tors that pro­vi­de functi­oning ef­fi­ci­ency of le­ading re­se­arch uni­ver­si­ti­es of the USA. The re­se­arch fin­dings de­monstra­te that the di­ver­si­fi­ca­ti­on of fun­ding so­ur­ces, the con­centra­ti­on of ta­lents in pro­fes­so­ri­al, sci­en­ti­fic, stu­dent com­mu­ni­ti­es, the gua­ran­tee of the aca­de­mic mo­bi­lity, and the fa­vo­rab­le ma­na­ge­ment struc­tu­re of the US uni­ver­si­ti­es al­low to lo­wer de­pen­den­ce on eco­no­mic insta­bi­lity, to pro­vi­de de­ve­lop­ment dyna­mism and adeq­ua­tely re­act to pre­sent calls. The cha­rac­te­ris­tic of the system de­ve­lo­ped in the pre­sent pe­ri­od of the US hig­her edu­ca­ti­on is gi­ven; the di­rec­ti­ons of its in­no­va­ti­ve de­ve­lop­ment in mo­dern con­di­ti­ons are de­fi­ned.

Sci­en­ti­fic no­velty. The aut­hor singles out and pro­ves the prob­lems of the US hig­her scho­ol cau­sed by an eco­no­mic cri­sis in the early 21st cen­tury and es­sen­ti­ally af­fec­ted the sta­te stra­tegy in edu­ca­ti­onal ma­na­ge­ment sphe­re and the cor­po­ra­te po­licy of high scho­ols, ta­king in­to con­si­de­ra­ti­on the ines­ca­pab­le fact that fe­atu­res of the US hig­her edu­ca­ti­on system are cau­sed by as­pi­ra­ti­on of this sta­te to hold the le­ading po­si­ti­ons in the world com­mu­nity. The contra­dic­ti­ons of in­no­va­ti­ve de­ve­lop­ment of hig­her edu­ca­ti­on of the USA are re­ve­aled. The aut­hor no­tes that uni­ver­si­ti­es ra­ise a stu­dent fee fo­cu­sing on well-off stu­dents in an ef­fort to sta­bi­li­ze its fi­nan­ci­al po­si­ti­on for­ces as it ne­ga­ti­vely af­fects the for­ma­ti­on of an in­tel­lec­tu­al po­ten­ti­al of the co­untry. On the one hand, ac­ces­si­bi­lity (mas­si­fi­ca­ti­on) of hig­her edu­ca­ti­on due to dis­tant techno­lo­gi­es pro­vi­des in­ter­na­ti­onal po­pu­la­rity to the US uni­ver­si­ti­es; on the ot­her hand, it lo­wers the edu­ca­ti­on qua­lity.

Prac­ti­cal sig­ni­fi­can­ce. Imple­men­ta­ti­on of the re­se­arch out­co­mes whi­le stud­ying the po­si­ti­ve fo­re­ign ex­pe­ri­en­ce and jud­ge­ments of the Ame­ri­can col­le­ag­ues in stra­tegy of ma­na­ge­ment adop­ti­on and the hig­her scho­ol or­ga­ni­sa­ti­on will help the Rus­si­an ones to find own way of ra­ti­onal and ef­fec­ti­ve mo­der­ni­za­ti­on of vo­ca­ti­onal tra­ining.

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Index terms hig­her edu­ca­ti­on in the USA, re­se­arch uni­ver­si­ti­es, in­no­va­ti­ve de­ve­lop­ment, com­pe­ti­ve­ness of hig­her edu­ca­ti­on insti­tu­ti­ons, ac­ces­si­bi­lity of hig­her edu­ca­ti­on, fi­nan­cing, ma­na­ge­ment, dis­tant le­ar­ning.

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